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Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework

Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework (MSF) describes how current problems, policy ideas, political trends converge in policy windows to enable legislative or regulatory changes.

Advocacy Coalition Framework

The Advocacy Coalition Framework theorizes how various stakeholders at different levels of government collaborate together and against each other on complex issues.


Hoefer, R. The Multiple Streams Framework: Understanding and Applying the Problems, Policies, and Politics Approach. J of Pol Practice & Research 3, 1–5 (2022).

Sabatier, P.A. An advocacy coalition framework of policy change and the role of policy-oriented learning therein. Policy Sci 21, 129–168 (1988).