The Earth’s climate is beautiful and complex, involving movement of air, water, and energy throughout the planet. The Earth’s climate system is even more complicated, including connections with the sun, ecosystems, and human activity. This week is a crash course on how the climate system works. The readings below will give you multiple perspectives on what controls climate and how it has changes in the recent past (last 400 to 60 million years). We could spend a whole semester on many of the subjects below, and I suspect that the readings will take you more time than usual because you’ll have to do quite a bit of extra searching and defining of terms to understand what is going on. Remember that you can post questions on our Slack channel and meet with the TAs during office hours as you work on these important subjects. Let’s learn!
Toggle ItemWeek 4: How does the Earth's climate system work?
This week, we will dive into the workings of the Earth’s climate system. For most of you, there will be a lot of new terminology and concepts. Several of the readings cover similar material, but in different ways and from different perspectives. I recommend following the order below, which generally moves from the more basic to the more advanced. Take your time and ask questions in and out of class:
Reading: Wikipedia article on geological time (this is mainly background reading that will prepare you for the other more climate-focused readings below. Focus on the divisions of time and names of various epochs)
Watching: Neil de Grasse Tyson on weather and climate (excerpt from the reboot of the series “Cosmos”)
Reading: Alan Betts “The Climate Energy Balance of the Earth”
Reading: Wikipedia article on Earth’s Energy Balance (this is dry and somewhat technical, but packed with important stuff)
Reading: Skeptical Science article “What does past climate change tell us about global warming?” (I really like this website, which I have found to be highly reliable and practical. Click on any of the underlined words, and it will show you a definition. Make sure to watch the video featuring Professor Sarah Green at the end).
Watching: An episode from the online course Denial 101 on understanding the past of Earth’s climate. (This is a great series that we will come back to several times this semester).
Reading: Paul Loubere “The Global Climate System” (This is a great resource of technical and fact-checked articles on multiple natural science topics).
Here are some additional readings if you want to get into it more:
- Peer-reviewed article by Marcott et al. on reconstruction of Holocene climate
- Nontechnical but useful article by the Utah DNR on ice ages
- Nice, nontechnical video on what controls climate
- Simplified video on the Earth’s climate
- Video on various contributors to climate, focusing on orbital parameters
Here are some questions to guide your study:
- What are the units of time in geological terms? Order the following divisions of time from longest to shortest.
- Eons, Ages, Supereons, Periods, Eras, Epochs
- What is our current Era and Epoch?
- Are we living in an ice age?
- What are some of the distinct climate periods in recent history (e.g. last 2000 years)?
- What is the difference between weather and climate?
- Given its distance from the sun, why isn’t the Earth frozen solid?
- If you had to identify four major controls on the Earth’s climate before the industrial revolution, what would you list?
- What is the lower part of the atmosphere called that we interact with personally?
- How is the lower part of the atmosphere warmed?
- How is energy redistributed in the Earth system and how is that redistribution affected by the spinning of the planet?
- As air warms, its ability to hold water increases or decreases? What is the shape of this relationship?
- Why doesn’t evaporation lead to a runaway greenhouse gas effect on Earth?
- How is temperature in the upper atmosphere changing and why?
- What are some stabilizing and destabilizing feedbacks in the Earth’s climate system? Note: these feedbacks are often called negative and positive feedbacks, but I find the terms stabilizing and destabilizing more intuitive.
- What are teleconnections?
- In what ways does water shape the Earth’s climate?
- What is the form of most of the solar energy that reaches Earth’s atmosphere from the sun: long wave, short wave, new wave?
- What caused the cold periods (known as ice ages) in the past million years?
- T/F The Earth’s climate system is nearly in equilibrium?
- T/F There is often a time lag between changes in the Earth’s surface temperature and changes in Earth’s energy balance.
- What is the largest “buffer” (stabilizer) of the Earth’s surface temperature?
- What is the solar constant and how much has it varied in the past several centuries?
- How much of the Earth’s energy budget comes from geothermal heat?
- What is the difference between variation (change in different regions) and coherence (a trend)?
- Which of the following best describe current warming compared to paleoclimate:
- Typical for the Holocene (last 12,000 years)
- Somewhat different than the Holocene
- Similar to several events in the last million years
- Similar to several events in the last tens of millions of years
- Unprecedented in the Earth’s history
Toggle ItemWeek 5: Ecosystem feedbacks, earth system models, and ice-cores o my!